Archive for June, 2007|Monthly archive page

Ditto … everyone’s favourite missing tool

This week I’m celebrating my nine year anniversary working with QNX.  When I started at QNX the company was in the throes of a major product development effort to bring QNX 6/Neutrino to market as its next generation operating system with full support for processor families other than x86. 

When I started MIPS, PPC ports were well underway with ARM and SH support starting up.   I’m not an expert in any particular processor architecture, so I ended up working through a lot of the general system bugs and polishing some of the rough edges of this new OS.  By necessity this meant spending a lot of time interacting with the very active set of QNX developers, who at that time were steeped in QNX 4 knowledge and trying to migrate their systems and software to this new OS.   There are a lot of basic similarities between QNX 4 and QNX 6 but there are enough differences that migration wasn’t a zero effort affair, despite a fairly comprehensive software migration kit.

About once a month I’d receive a request from QNX4 developers:

“When will ditto be ported to Neutrino?”

Of course, the first time I heard this comment I was intrigued since ditto is not a standard *nix utility, so I thought I’d look into it.  It turned out that porting this particular utility (which provides terminal replication and remote terminal access) to Neutrino was going to take some signficiant work and more or less be an entire re-write since the utility took specific advantage of how QNX 4 character device drivers were written.  Under Neutrino the serial driver code was completely different,  so at the time I turned my focus to other areas where fixes could be made more short term with a plan to come back to do the ditto re-write.

Here we are, nine years later and there are still people asking for ditto for Neutrino. 

Boy do I feel bad about never getting back to that work =;-(

Well since I still haven’t ported ditto yet, the first thing I’m going to do is suggest an alternative that may be a more mainstream solution in these days of Linux fervor.  The GNU Screen utility provides much of the same terminal multiplexing and remote or shared control that ditto did.  The source compiles, with a few minor changes, out of the box for Neutrino. While I haven’t taken it for a full test drive yet, this looks like it might be the best immediate solution and maybe even long term since there are several screen resources available in the community.

However, ditto ain’t totally dead yet.  The other day walking through our source tree on a related project I noticed that one of our aspiring developers has done some work to make some of the ditto remote monitoring (no interaction) capabilities available for Neutrino.  This is still internal goods, and not in the next OS release, but perhaps this article might nudge it along if there is some competition.

Thomas

Fragmentation; meeting rooms and memory allocators

At QNX we have a problem. We have many meeting rooms but we have many more developers that want to have meetings and discussions in those meeting rooms. While a certain amount of hallway development is always going to happen, the really big whiteboards are all in the meeting rooms … so that is where we have to gather. Our admin folks use Microsoft Exchange, so if you want to book the rooms then you need to play along (or call in a lot of favours!) and book through the Exchange server. An interesting trend I’ve noticed is that every few months we tend to end up with a mysterious meeting room stall. A time where it is not possible to use the system to book any meeting room in the building, but if you wander around you find that most of the rooms are not being used.

Mysterious … and incredibly annoying!

I’ve come to the conclusion that what is happening is that the Exchange meeting rooms are suffering from fragmentation. When the system is cleared, then large groups book re-occuring meetings. Time goes on, and the re-occuring meeting needs to be shifted and bumped, rooms get borrowed (or stolen) and when the meeting organizer changes the room, the room doesn’t officially get free’ed up until all participants clear their bookings of the rooms. Over time things get so fragmented that until everyone clears their calendars you can’t book anything.

Fragmentation is a pain. There are lots of schemes to avoid it in filesystems and in memory allocators, but eventually it comes down to the fact that you need to make arbitrary decisions about how to carve up a resource into pieces to satisfy a particular usage pattern. In the case of operating system memory, this granularity is of page sizes which are generally* 4K chunks.

For most embedded applications 4K of memory is an awfull lot so there is a secondary, application level, allocator that sits behind the malloc/free/realloc calls that applications use to get at the memory. This memory allocator takes the pages provided by the operating system and then further carves them into bands of memory of smaller fixed block sizes as well as a list of “bigger blocks” that are non-uniform in size to satisfy the abnormal requests. A great, more detailed, description of what the QNX memory allocator is doing is in the QNX IDE User’s Guide in the Memory Analysis section.

If you snoop the header file then you can see the struct malloc_stats structure that can provide you with information about how your system is using application allocated memory. You will need to include the _malloc_stats external global variable to get at the numbers.

While not a direct measure of fragmentation, these statistics give you some insight into the overhead that the memory allocator is taking and how much memory is being handed out to your application (and thus shows up in a pidin mem listing as application heap) but may not be used directly. Note however that these statistics don’t tell the whole story and in the allocator it is possible for “big blocks” to be borrowed for “small block” use but for now we’ll pretend that those values tell you most of what you need to know to get started.

So now that you can see a bit of detail of how the application allocator is carving up and managing memory … what can you do when you find out that the allocator’s decision about small blocks or big blocks isn’t the right one for you but you don’t want to write your own memory allocator? We’ll talk about that kind of customization (and how you know you need to do it) in my next post!

In the meantime, I need to go and find out which meeting room is suffering from fragmentation and grab it for a meeting!

Thomas


* I say generally here because with the introduction of large page support in new versions of Neutrino, a 4K page may be the general page size, but it isn’t the only page size =;-)